Estimation of the J-curve effect in the bilateral trade of Hungary



JEL classification

  • Trade: General
  • Empirical Studies of Trade
  • Foreign Exchange


Exchange rate, international trade, J-curve, trade balance, vector error correction model


Resulting in a J-curve pattern, the devaluation or depreciation of a currency worsens the trade balance before improving it. The aim of the paper is to investigate the J-curve effect in bilateral trade flows between Hungary and its major trading partners: Germany, Austria, Italy, France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Poland and the Czech Republic. This paper explores the J-curve effect using quarterly data over the period 1997–2012. We include bilateral export and import flows, GDP and nominal bilateral exchange rates in the models. We employ a Johansen cointegration test to analyse the long run relationship between variables. The short run effects and related J-curve effect are explored by estimating an error correction model and by assessing impulse response functions. A typical J-curve effect is detected in bilateral trade flows with the United Kingdom. In trade flows with Austria and Italy, a partial J-curve can be observed. In bilateral trade with the Czech Republic, we explore an inverse J-curve. In other cases, the coefficient estimates follow any specific pattern.